This lesson plan is centered upon the study of machines, with a focus on oil production with big rigs. Teacher's may use this as a springboard for climate change education from a technical standpoint.
**Attachment pages 6-10.
Grade 4 Science
• Science 4: Demonstrate a practical understanding of wheels, gears and levers by constructing devices in which energy is transferred to produce motion.
• Science 4: Construct devices that use wheels and axles, and demonstrate their use in model vehicles, pulley systems and gear
• Science 4: Construct a mechanical device for a designated purpose, using materials and design suggestions provided.
• Science 4: Explore and evaluate variations in the design of a mechanical device, demonstrating that control is an important
element in the design and construction of that device.
• Science 4: Design and construct vehicles or devices that move or have moving parts – linkages, wheels and axles.
• Science 4: Use simple forces to power or propel a device, e.g., direct pushes, pulls, and cranking mechanisms.
• Science 4: Identify steps to be used in constructing a device or vehicle, and work cooperatively with other students to construct the device or vehicle.
Photocopy and hand out the following instructions and the drill rig diagram to student or parent helpers. As an option, you could read out the instructions step-by-step as students build the model drill rig with their group members and helpers.
Explain that to make a moving machine with so many parts, students will need to follow each step carefully and correctly. Encourage them to take their time! If a part they build isn’t quite right, have them take
it apart and start over. Make sure students look at the numbers on the diagram to help them as they build the drill rig.
1. Drilling platform. First, remove the lid from the shoe box and put it away. Place the box upside down. In the centre of the bottom of the box, cut out a round hole about 5 cm in diameter. Then cut a big square window in the middle of one long side of the box so you can see inside. This is your drilling rig platform.
2. Rig frame. Now take two straws and tape them together to form one long straw. Do this until you have four long straws all together. Make four small balls out of modeling clay and stick them in a square on your drilling platform around the hole. The balls of modeling clay should be about 10 cm apart. Stick the four straws into the modeling clay so they stand up straight up on the drilling platform. You may want to tape the straws and clay down to keep everything steady. These straws will be the frame for your drill rig.
3. Crown. Cut a 5 cm square of cardboard from your shoe box lid. This will be the crown of your rig. Tape the cardboard crown to each of the four straws at the very top, so it lays flat on top of the straws, like figure 3 on the instructions. To do this, you will have to make the straws lean inwards a little so your drill rig will be wider at the bottom and narrower at the top.
4. Rig frame cross bars. Now you need to strengthen the rig frame. To do that, cut some pieces of straws to use as cross bars on the frame. Decide together where the cross bars should go and how many you need, and tape them onto the straw frame. You may have to experiment a little to figure out how long to cut the straws for the cross bars. The cross bars can be taped straight across the frame or on an angle. You will know your drill rig frame is strong enough when it doesn’t wobble.
5. Draw works base. Peel the paper off the ends of an empty thread spool. Take a large paper clip and unbend it by pulling the middle towards you to form an L shape. The longest part of the paper clip should be on your left as you pull the middle towards you. Open the bottom of the L into a triangle shape to form a base. Now bend the short end up and straight out. It should stand up, like in figure 5 on instructions. Poke the straight end of the paper clip through the centre of the spool.
6. Draw works. Tape the base of the paper clip to one side of your drilling platform, so the spool is raised above the platform and turns freely. Make sure the spool unwinds facing the drill rig, not sideways to it. If your spool falls over, try to figure out how to bend the end of the paper clip to make it into a stronger base to keep your spool upright. This is your draw works, which will raise and lower the drill pipe.
7. Draw works crank. Cut a straw in half and fold in the last 2 cm of one end in. Wedge the folded part tightly into one of the spaces at the end of the thread spool, but not in the centre hole. Bend the rest of the straw into two right angles to form a crank system, like the one in figure 7 in instructions.
8. Cable. Cut a piece of string about 150 cm long. Tape one end of the string securely to the draw works spool. Wrap almost all the string around the spool.
9. Crown block. Straighten another paper clip. Now bend it into a U shape and then bend the ends of the paper clip in towards each other, like figure 9 in instructions. Hook the two ends of the paper clip over the top of the cardboard crown, so the U shape hangs down inside the drill rig, like a swing. Make sure the U shape can swing towards the draw works rather than swinging sideways to it. Tape the ends of the paper clip to the top of the crown to make sure it doesn’t fall off.
10. Hoisting system. Now unravel some of the string from the draw works and loop it over the U shaped paper clip. Pull the end of the string down into the centre of the drill rig. Tie a cup hook onto the end. Wrap some tape around the string and hook to make the knot more secure and make the hook heavier. This is your hoisting system, which will lower the drill bit down under the ground and raise it up again.
11. Kelly and drill bit. Wrap duct tape all around one straw to make it into a heavy pipe, called a kelly. On one end of the pipe, cut out pointy triangles to make it look like sharp teeth. This will be the drill bit that is attached to the end of the pipe and drills into the rock. Tape the other end of the straw to the hook on the hoisting system, making sure the pipe hangs straight down. The pipe should be able to drop into the hole you cut into the drilling platform.
12. Flag. Finally, use a toothpick to poke a small hole in the cardboard crown at the top of your rig. Cut a small rectangle from a piece of white paper. Draw the Canadian flag on both sides of the paper. Glue the flag to the top of the toothpick and stick the toothpick back into the hole in the crown.
*See page 6 in the Big Rig attachment for the complete lesson plan
• Shoebox with lid • 15-20 straight straws (not bendable) • Modeling clay • Duct tape • 2 large plastic-coated paper clips • Small empty thread spool • 150 cm string • Cup hooks • R ound toothpick • Drilling rig diagram handout (page 6 in attachment)
Source:Canadian Center for Energy
Resource Type:Lesson Plan
Topic:Energy Generation, Science and Technology,
Level:Intermediate / Middle
Grade: 4 5 6 7 8 9
Web Pages Used
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